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Electric Motorcycle Paving (Compared to Scooter - Financial Comparition)

Electric Motorbike Vs ScooterTransportation is a vital need for most people in Indonesia. Limited road facilities and vehicle infrastructure and economic capacity of the community, fostering community interest in owning motorized vehicles, especially motorbikes. Based on data from the Indonesian Motorcycles Industry Association (AISI - Asosiasi Industri Sepeda Motor Indonesia), National motorcycle sales in 2016 totaled 5,931,285 units while in 2017 motorcycle sales reached 5,886,103 units.  

In line with the increase, the government-issued budget for subsidized fuel oil (BBM) will increase as well, the environmental pollution has not taken into account, especially air and sound pollution, so some manufacturers offer alternative electric motorbikes.

Electric motorbikes are bicycle vehicles driven by electric motors and accumulators. Electric motorbikes appear along with the issue of global warming and the scarcity of fuel, so vehicle manufacturers are competing to create vehicles without fuel oil. In Indonesia, there are several brands of electric motorcycles that are sold at 15-20 million price ranges, such as Viar and Gesits.

 

With such a large price range, electric motorbikes will deal with conventional and popular automatic scooter, such as Honda Beat, Yamaha Mio or the like. Physically there is almost no significant difference between the two, except when both operate on the streets, for example noise levels, distance and reliability in crossing waterlogged streets.

In general, the noise level of an electric motorbike is much quieter than a scooter, but the distance of an electric motorcycle in a fully charged battery can reach 100 km (depending on road conditions), with a recharging time of about 3-4 hours. In principle, this electric motorbike can be used over waterlogged roads and can even be washed, but considering the electric motorbike movers, accumulators and electronic-based controls, electric motorbikes are relatively more vulnerable to water than scooter, but this pays off with relatively cheap accumulator charge.

Comparing the feasibility of Honda Beat and Yamaha Mio motorbikes is much easier than comparing between electric motorbikes and scooter motorbikes, considering the two vehicles are of different types. The case is similar to comparing the feasibility of a photovoltaic or wind turbine or generator to electrify an area.

This study compares the LCC (life cycle cost) analysis of four electric motorbikes and scooter to find out which one is more profitable.

Although there are several measuring tools for economic cost effectiveness analysis, but LCC is the most common measurement tool used by large organizations. LCC analysis can be used to compare the total cost between an electric motorbike and a conventional scooter by setting a comparative life cycle cost between the two. This needs to be done considering the difficulty of comparing or calculating the economic benefits of a project. We are easily trapped in different assumptions. Some of us will tend to choose motorbikes that are widely used by the public even though every day users will pay high operational costs for fuel.

LCC is the sum of the cost of Net Present Value (NPV) from the four main components, namely the initial investment in the purchase of motorbikes, the advantages of motorcycle use, recurring costs of operating and motorcycle maintenance and the resale price of used motorbikes, during the life of the motorcycle (assumed to be 7 years or 80 kms), considering that in general people have left old motorbikes above 7 years old, sold them and bought new motorbikes again. If the LCC of an electric motorcycle is lower than a scooter, then an electric motorbike must be the first choice, and vice versa if the LCC of a scooter is lower than an electric motorbike, then a scooter must be an option.

After 7 years, the age of using an electric motorbike battery/accumulator has been used up and must be replaced with a new price that is not cheap, while the use of a scooter is 'probably' can still be maintained longer by replacing damaged components. Considering the many supporting components on both motorbikes, such as tires, chains, lights, and other spare parts, it is assumed that for 7 years only routine service and oil/filter changes are carried out.

Costs can occur at different points of time. Economic methods for calculating future profits or expenditures directly compared to what is happening now is by applying the banking interest rate or discount for all future expenses and profits. For example, with a 10% discount rate, the cost of spending USD 100 a day can be considered equivalent to the expenditure cost of USD 110 issued one year later or equivalent to the USD 121 expenditure that occurred two years later, and so on, as shown in the following figure. This is because it involves investment capital that will provide benefits to investors if the capital is stored in the Bank or invested in another project. 

Compound interest factor table

Tabel Bunga Majemuk

It can be formulated, NPV = F / (1 + i) n  atau P = F.(P/F,i,n)

where:

NPV or P: Net Present Value or current economic value

F: Costs incurred in a certain year

i: Discount rate (banking interest rate)

n: The year in which costs occur.

Economic methods for calculating future profits or expenditures directly compared to what is happening now is by applying the banking interest rate or discount for all future expenses and profits. For example, with a 10% discount rate, the cost of spending USD 100 a day can be considered equivalent to the expenditure cost of USD 110 issued one year later or equivalent to the USD 121 expenditure that occurred two years later, and so on, as shown in the following figure. This matter is known because it involves investment capital that will provide benefits to investors if the capital is stored in the Bank or invested in other project. 

The following table shows the cost components that may arise and should be considered in the selection of electric motorbikes or conventional motorbikes.

Examples of the effect of banking interest (bank discount rate) on expenditure costs each year (i = 10%)

Bank Discount RateCost components (general) that arise during the motorbike life cycle (assumed life cycle of a motorbike is 80 kms or 7 years)

Cost Components Table

Details of cost components arising from four motorbikes during the life cycle are described in the following table:

Detail Cost Components

LCC Calculation

In the LCC calculation, two basic assumptions are used, namely motorbike usage in the range of 30 kms per day or 10,950 kms/year and the motorbike usage age is a maximum of 7 years or 80,000 kms. With this assumption, it can be calculated the cost of routine expenses for operations and maintenance, as shown in the following table:

 OM Table

Cost description (investment, routine expenses for operation and maintenance, replacement of components and resale prices) during the seven-year life cycle of four motorbikes compared to Figure 1 below. Vertical lines down represent expenditure costs while the vertical line up represents income and the horizontal axis represents the year.

Biaya Selama LC

To calculate the present value is P = F . (P/F,i,n), while to calculate the present value for recurring expenditures every year is P = A.(P/A,i,n), where A is the expense incurred every year.

Assuming the banking interest rate is 6%, the LCC can be calculated during the operating life of the motorcycle with the formula:

LCC = Initial Cost + Operation Cost + Maintenance Cost + Replacement Cost + Salvage

LCC = P + AO . (P/A,6%,7) + AM . (P/A,6%,7) + FR . (P/F,6%,4) - FS . (P/F,6%,7)

Referring to the data in the table above, during the seven-year operating life, replacement costs only appear on Viar motorbikes, i.e battery replacement in the fourth year.

LCCVIAR = 16.000.000 + 302.000.(5,582381) + 0 + 2.880.000.(0,792094) - 500.000.(0,665057)

                = 16.000.000 + 1.685.879 + 0 + 2.281.231 – 332.528

                = 19.634.582,-

LCCGESITS  = 16.000.000 + 299.154.( 5,582381) + 0 + 0 - 500.000.( 0,665057)

                = 16.000.000 + 1.669.991 + 0 + 0 – 332.528

                = 17.337.463,-

LCCHBEAT   = 16.000.000 + 1.762.800.( 5,582381) + 470.850.( 5,582381) + 0 - 3.000.000.( 0,665057)

                = 16.000.000 + 9.840.621 + 0 + 2.628.464 – 1.995171

                = 26.473.914,-

LCCY-MIO    = 16.000.000 + 1.850.940.( 5,582381) + 470.850.( 5,582381) + 0 - 3.000.000.( 0,665057)

                = 16.000.000 + 10.332.652 + 0 + 2.628.464 – 1.995.171

                = 26.965.945,-

We can say that the lowest LCC is Gesits and the highest is Yamaha Mio.

Conclussion

The above LCC illustrates that electric motorbikes have lower life cycle costs than scooter. From the difference in LCC, It can be concluded that an electric motorbike is more feasible than a scooter.

If data is available, the cost of replacing motorcycle components can be added to provide more accurate calculation results. Likewise with the use of a longer use of age, for example 10 years or daily motorbike usage above 50 kms. (molis/Diros)